Remembering General Pervez Musharraf, Former Pakistani President and Army Chief

Pervez Musharraf, the former four-star Pakistani army general who governed the South Asian nation for nearly a decade after coming to power in a 1999 bloodless coup, has died at the age of 79.[0]

Musharraf was born in New Delhi in 1943 and moved to Karachi, Pakistan in 1947 with his family after the partition of India and Pakistan.[1] In 1964, he enlisted in the Pakistan Army, having graduated from the Army Staff and Command College in Quetta.[0]

In 1998, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif caused a shock to the military leadership when he chose Musharraf to become the chief of army staff, replacing General Jehangir Karamat who had been asked to resign due to a dispute concerning security policy.

On October 12, 1999, Musharraf forcibly removed and arrested Sharif in a coup, taking the position of chief executive, after Sharif denied Musharraf access to land his commercial plane in Karachi.[0]

In October of the same year, Sharif dismissed Musharraf upon his return from a trip to Sri Lanka.[2] Sharif's government was overthrown after the military leadership refused to obey his orders and staged a coup.[3]

Musharraf served as President of Pakistan from 1999 to 2008, before departing for London in a state of shame.[4] He rose to the rank of General and was appointed as the Chief of Army Staff on October 7, 1998, by then prime minister Nawaz Sharif.

In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, then-President Musharraf of Pakistan chose to align with the United States and assist in the ousting of the Afghan Taliban, allies of al-Qaeda.[5] He also cracked down on Islamist groups and banned dozens of radical outfits, a move that angered radicals.[6]

He gained his initial experience in combat during the 1965 Indo-Pak War, and was a member of the prestigious Special Services Group (SSG) from 1966 to 1972.[7] In 1971, Musharraf was the company commander of a battalion of the Special Services Group (SSG) during the war with India.[7] From 1971 onward, his successes in the military led to him being promoted quickly through the ranks of the army.[7]

Musharraf, as the Pakistani Army's General, was responsible for the conception of the Kargil war, commanding the infiltration of Indian territory.[8] When the Prime Minister of Pakistan at the time, Nawaz Sharif, gave the order for the country's forces to retreat due to international pressure, it was clear to all that a coup was about to happen, since General Musharraf did not agree with Sharif.[4]

0. “Former Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf Dies In Dubai” Kashmir Observer, 5 Feb. 2023,

1. “Pervez Musharraf: A soldier on many fronts” DW (English), 5 Feb. 2023,

2. “Pervez Musharraf, military ruler of Pakistan who partnered with U.S. after 9/11, dies at 79” CBS News, 5 Feb. 2023,

3. “Pervez Musharraf, Former Military Ruler of Pakistan, Dies at 79” Yahoo News, 5 Feb. 2023,

4. “Don’t mock the dead, unless the dead person is someone like Pervez Musharraf, then all memes are fine” OpIndia, 5 Feb. 2023,

5. “Pervez Musharraf: The Pakistani ex-president’s chequered legacy” Al Jazeera English, 5 Feb. 2023,

6. “Pakistan's former military ruler Gen Pervez Musharraf dies in Dubai”, 5 Feb. 2023,

7. “Profile: Musharraf — from military strongman to forgotten man of politics”, 5 Feb. 2023,

8. “Pervez Musharraf, Pakistan's ex-president, dies aged 79” BBC, 5 Feb. 2023,